pope innocent viii death

pope innocent viii death

The 1492 papal conclave (6–11 August) was convened after the death of Pope Innocent VIII (25 July 1492). In Rome he became a priest in the retinue of Cardinal Calandrini, half-brother to Pope Nicholas V (1447–55). He was quickly ordained as a priest and the next day consecrated Innocent III. He became a priest in the retinue of Cardinal Calandrini, half-brother to Pope Nicholas V (1447–55), Bishop of Savona under Pope Paul II, and with the support of Cardinal Giuliano Della Rovere. cf., Joyy et al., Witchcraft and Magic In Europe, p. 239 (2002). The following year, Pope Innocent supported the barons in their failed revolt. He then developed a fever. The pope died in Perugia less than a year after the council ended. Defeated by his brother's armies, Cem sought protection from the Knights of St. John in Rhodes. [6] The fall of Granada in January 1492, was celebrated in the Vatican and Innocent granted Ferdinand II of Aragon the epithet "Catholic Majesty. To Valori, he had become 'an inert mass of flesh, incapable of assimiliating any nourishment but a few drops of milk from a young woman's breast'.[19]. On the death of Pope Innocent VIII on 25 July 1492, the three likely candidates for the Papacy were the sixty-one-year-old Borgia, seen as an independent candidate, Ascanio Sforza for the Milanese, and Giuliano della Rovere, seen as a pro-French candidate. Some scholars view the bull as "clearly political", motivated by jurisdictional disputes between the local German Catholic priests and clerics from the Office of the Inquisition who answered more directly to the pope. [15], In Rome, he ordered the Belvedere of the Vatican to be built, intended for summer use, on an unarticulated slope above the Vatican Palace. Christopher Columbus and the betrayed Pope) is convinced of this after having studied Columbus's papers for over 25 years. Any time the Sultan threatened war against the Christian Balkans, Innocent threatened to release this brother, who later died in a military expedition, fighting for King Charles VIII of France against Naples. While in Naples he was appointed a Canon of the Cathedral of Capua, and was given the Priory of S. Maria d'Arba in Genoa. In 1473, with the support of Giuliano Della Rovere, later Pope Julius II, he was made cardinal by Pope Sixtus IV, whom he succeeded on 29 August 1484 as Pope Innocent VIII. This page is based on the Wikipedia article. In a fairly unimpressive papacy, the elderly pope became the first pontiff to publicly announce that he fathered illegitimate children. ", Minnich (2005) notes that the attitude of Renaissance popes towards slavery, a common institution in contemporary cultures, varied. [17] The slaves of Innocent were called "moro", meaning "dark-skinned man", in contrast to negro slaves who were called "moro nero".[18]. The Italian journalist and writer Ruggero Marino, in his book Cristoforo Colombo e il Papa tradito (transl. In exchange for maintaining the custody of Cem, Bayezid paid Innocent VIII 120,000 crowns, a relic of the Holy Lance and an annual fee of 45,000 ducats. Pope Innocent VIII(Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo(or Cibo), was head of the Catholic Churchand ruler of the Papal Statesfrom 29 August 1484 to his death. In 1232, Pope Innocent VIII declared cats diabolical, associated with the Devil. [5] After the death of King Alfonso (1458), friction between Giovanni Battista and the Archbishop of Genoa induced him to resign his canonry, and to go to Padua and then to Rome for his education. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). After being moved the first time in 1606 to the so-called aisle of the Sudarium, the monument to Pope Innocent VIII was placed in its current location in 1621, and arbitrarily recomposed. [15], In Rome, he ordered the Belvedere of the Vatican to be built, intended for summer use, on an unarticulated slope above the Vatican Palace. He is to date the last pope to take the pontifical name of "Alexander" upon his election to the papacy. The following year, Pope Innocent supported the barons in their failed revolt. Viewing his brother as a rival, the Sultan paid the pope not to set him free. Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo) was born in Genoa of Greek ancestry,[1][2][3][4] the son of Arano Cybo or Cibo (c. 1375–c. In memory of Innocent III, to whose lineage he belonged, he chose the name of Innocent XIII. [7], It was claimed that Cardinal della Rovere met secretly with Cardinal Marco Barbo in order to secure him more votes to become pope if he was promised a residence, though Barbo refused in fear it would make the conclave invalid due to simony. Pope Innocent VIII (Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 29 August 1484 to his death. 1455) and his wife Teodorina de Mari (c. Soon after his succession he invested Emperor Charles VI with the Kingdom of Sicily and received his oath of … Some scholars view the bull as "clearly political", motivated by jurisdictional disputes between the local German Catholic priests and clerics from the Office of the Inquisition who answered more directly to the pope. About Pope Innocent VIII Born at Genoa, 1432; elected 29 August, 1484; died at Rome, 25 July, 1492. Cem was later sent to the castle of Pierre d'Aubusson in France. Kramer would later claim that witchcraft was to blame for bad weather. Innocent VIII named eight cardinals in one consistory which was held on 9 March 1489; the pope named three of those cardinals in pectore (one of whom being a successor in Giovanni de' Medici who became Pope Leo X) with two of them having their names released after the pope died to ensure that they could vote in the 1492 conclave. For more information follow the bold category link. His tomb at St. Peter's Basilica was sculpted by Filippo della Valle. His daughter Teodorina Cybo married Gerardo Usodimare and had a daughter. Wikimedia Commons Innocent VII, who became pope in 1484, was the first pontiff to openly acknowledge eight illegitimate children, though he … His daughter Teodorina Cybo married Gerardo Usodimare and had a daughter. In season, he hunted at Castello della Magliana, which he enlarged. Arano Cybo was viceroy of Naples and then a senator in Rome under Pope Calixtus III (1455–58). Pope … Innocent XI, given name Benedetto Odescalchi, Roman Catholic Pope from 1676 to 1689, was born at Como on the 16th of May 1611. Pope Innocent VIII (Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 29 August 1484 to his death. Ferdinand's oppressive government led in 1485 to a rebellion of the aristocracy, known as the Conspiracy of the Barons, which included Francesco Coppola and Antonello Sanseverino of Salerno and was supported by Pope Innocent VIII. Pope. Innocent excommunicated Ferdinand in 1489 and invited King Charles VIII of France to come to Italy with an army and take possession of the Kingdom of Naples, a disastrous political event for the Italian peninsula as a whole. Pope Innocent VIII (Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. [6], The papal conclave of 1484 was rife with factions, while gangs rioted in the streets. A protracted conflict with King Ferdinand I of Naples was the principal obstacle. [8] Cem died in Capua on 25 February 1495 on a military expedition under the command of King Charles VIII of France to conquer Naples. In March 1489, Cem was transferred to the custody of Innocent VIII. To Valori, he had become 'an inert mass of flesh, incapable of assimiliating any nourishment but a few drops of milk from a young woman's breast'. Invariably short of money, […] Pope Innocent XI (Latin: Innocentius XI; 16 May 1611 – 12 August 1689), born Benedetto Odescalchi, was Pope from 21 September 1676 to his death on August 12, 1689. Giovanni Battista's early years were spent at the Neapolitan court. Boniface VIII, original name Benedetto Caetani, (born c. 1235—died October 11, 1303, Rome [Italy]), pope from 1294 to 1303, the extent of whose authority was vigorously challenged by the emergent powerful monarchs of western Europe, especially Philip IV of France. Pope Innocent III Was Known For Calling the Fourth Crusade and the Albigensian Crusade, approving the works of Saint Dominic and Saint Francis of Assisi, and convoking the Fourth Lateran Council. Pope Innocent XI raised Pignatelli to the rank of Cardinal in 1682. Innocent VIII had lots of illegitimate children. However, the sultan paid the Knights a large amount to keep Cem captive. In 1487, Innocent confirmed Tomas de Torquemada as Grand Inquisitor of Spain. Cem's presence in Rome was useful because whenever Bayezid intended to launch a military campaign against the Christian nations of the Balkans, the Pope would threaten to release his brother. His rule was contested by his brother Cem, who sought the support of the Mamluks of Egypt. King Ferdinand I of Naples had supported Cybo's competitor, Rodrigo Borgia. The noted Franciscan theologian Angelo Carletti di Chivasso, whom Innocent in 1491 appointed as Apostolic Nuncio and Commissary, conjointly with the Bishop of Mauriana, was involved in reaching the peaceful agreement between Catholics and Waldensians. The fact is that he died seven days before the departure of Christopher Columbus for his supposedly first voyage over the Atlantic, raising speculations that Columbus actually traveled before the known date and re-discovered the Americas for the Europeans before the supposed date of 12 October 1492. In 1650, he was made Bishop of Novara. [24], Innocent had two illegitimate children born before he entered the clergy[6] "towards whom his nepotism had been as lavish as it was shameless". Duffy, Eamon (2006). Innocent VIII, original name Giovanni Battista Cibo, (born 1432, Genoa—died July 25/26, 1492, Rome), pope from 1484 to 1492. He had a … By July 1492, Innocent had become very skinny. One of the most influential pontiffs of the Middle Ages, Innocent built the papacy into a more powerful, prestigious institution than it had ever been before. In March 1489, Cem was transferred to the custody of Innocent VIII. In season, he hunted at Castello della Magliana, which he enlarged. However, in 1503, after the death of Pope Alexander VI, he returned to Rome determined to become the next pope. Very few, if any, cats were around for 400 years. Constantly confronted with a depleted treasury, he resorted to the objectionable expedient of creating new offices and granting them to the highest bidders. In order to prevent the election of the Venetian Cardinal Barbo, Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, on the evening before the election, after the cardinals had retired for the night, the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, nephew of the late Pope, and Cardinal Borgia, the Vice-Chancellor, visited a number of cardinals and secured their votes with the promise of various benefices. Charles I, Duke of Savoy eventually interfered to save his territories from further confusion and promised the Vaudois peace, but not before the offensive had devastated the area and many of the Vaudois fled to Provence and south to Italy. A mysterious inscription on his tomb in Saint Peter in Rome states: “Nel tempo del suo Pontificato, la gloria della scoperta di un nuovo mondo” (transl. He is known in Budapest as the "Saviour of Hungary". Both the papal letter appended to the work and the supposed endorsement of Cologne University for it are problematic. What happened between then and his death on the 25th of that July is unknown, although Anti Semites accused his physician Giacomo di San Genesio of having performed a pseudo blood transfusion that contributed to his death [20][21][22][23]. Alberto de' Capitanei, archdeacon of Cremona, responded to the bull by organizing a crusade to fulfill its order and launched an offensive in the provinces of Dauphiné and Piedmont. In 1473, with the support of Giuliano Della Rovere, later Pope Julius II, he was made cardinal by Pope Sixtus IV, whom he succeeded on 29 August 1484 as Pope Innocent VIII. [16], King Ferdinand of Aragon gave Innocent 100 Moorish slaves, who were shared out with favoured Cardinals. In 1467, he was made Bishop of Savona by Pope Paul II, but exchanged this see in 1472 for that of Molfetta in south-eastern Italy. Pope Innocent VIII Pope Innocent VIII (Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. [6], The papal conclave of 1484 was rife with factions, while gangs rioted in the streets. Named bishop of Savona, Italy, in 1467 by Pope Paul II, he was made cardinal in 1473 by Pope Sixtus IV, whom he succeeded. Shortly after his coronation, Innocent VIII addressed a fruitless summons to Christendom to unite in a crusade against the Turks. By July 1492, Innocent had become very skinny. 1432 – 25 July 1492 Pope Innocent VIII (; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was the head of the Catholic Church from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. 1380–? Innocent VIII Was the First Pope to Acknowledge His Illegitimate Children Openly Cardinal Giovanni Cibo lived a worldly life before the curia elected him Innocent VIII in 1484. 13. Cardinal della Rovere then met with Borgia, who disliked Barbo and wished to block his election, with an offer to turn their votes over to Cibò, promising them benefits for doing so.[7]. In season, he hunted at Castello della Magliana, which he enlarged. Pope Alexander VIII (22 April 1610 – 1 February 1691), born Pietro Vito Ottoboni, was Pope from 6 October 1689 to his death in 1691. That was it for cats. After Innocent XI in 1689, he was buried in St. Peter's Basilica. In March 1489, Cem, the captive brother of Bayezid II, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, came into Innocent's custody. [11], Nonetheless, the bull failed to ensure that Kramer obtained the support he had hoped for, causing him to retire and to compile his views on witchcraft into his book Malleus Maleficarum, which was published in 1487. His successor would later turn the building into the Cortile del Belvedere. Shortly after his coronation, Innocent VIII addressed a fruitless summons to Christendom to unite in a crusade against the Turks. He became a priest in the retinue of Cardinal Calandrini, half-brother to Pope Nicholas V (1447–55), Bishop of Savona under Pope Paul II, and with the support of Cardinal Giuliano Della Rovere. After the death of Clement XI he was elected pope in a stormy conclave on 8 May, 1721. However, the sultan paid the Knights a large amount to keep Cem captive. But Innocent left a rich legacy. [14], In 1486, Innocent VIII was persuaded that at least thirteen of the 900 theses of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola were heretical, and the book containing the theses was interdicted. The fact is that he died seven days before the departure of Christopher Columbus for his supposedly first voyage over the Atlantic, raising speculations that Columbus actually traveled before the known date and re-discovered the Americas for the Europeans before the supposed date of 12 October 1492. By July 1492, Innocent had become very skinny. Rats were the ones that spread the bubonic plague aka black death. After his death. 1380–? Without cats, the rat population flourished. Pope Innocent XIII (Latin: Innocentius Tertius Decimus; 13 May 1655 – 7 March 1724), born Michelangelo Conti, was an Italian cleric of the Roman Catholic Church and the 245th Pope from 1721 until his death.. Michelangelo Conti was born in Poli, near Rome.. Conti was born into a family that which included several popes including Pope Innocent III. Son of the viceroy of Naples, Battista spent his early years at the Neapolitan court. Defeated by his brother's armies, Cem sought protection from the Knights of St. John in Rhodes. His rule was contested by his brother Cem, who sought the support of the Mamluks of Egypt. A mysterious inscription on his tomb in Saint Peter in Rome states: “Nel tempo del suo Pontificato, la gloria della scoperta di un nuovo mondo” (transl. Cardinal Rodrigo Borja was elected unanimously on the fourth ballot as Pope Alexander VI. [5] After the death of King Alfonso (1458), friction between Giovanni Battista and the Archbishop of Genoa induced him to resign his canonry, and to go to Padua and then to Rome for his education. While in Naples he was appointed a Canon of the Cathedral of Capua, and was given the Priory of S. Maria d'Arba in Genoa. Also in 1487, Innocent issued a bull[13] denouncing the views of the Waldensians (Vaudois), offering plenary indulgence to all who should engage in a Crusade against them. [17] The slaves of Innocent were called "moro", meaning "dark-skinned man", in contrast to negro slaves who were called "moro nero".[18]. The day after Pope Celestine III died, Innocent became one of the youngest men ever selected to sit in Peter's Chair. Innocent VIII, Pope Innocent VIII, Pope (1432–1492; r. 1484–1492) Giovanni Batista Cibo, elected pope in 1484, issued what has been termed one of the most important documents in the history of the Church’s fight against witchcraft: the Bull of 1484, Summis desiderantes affectibus (“Desiring with supreme ardor”). Pope Paul III excommunicated Henry VIII in 1538, and opened the Council of The process of canonization was begun in 1714 and suspended in 1744. Cats are the #1 rat predators. Constantly confronted with a depleted treasury, he resorted to the objectionable expedient of creating new offices and granting them to the highest bidders. The immediate conflict was not ended until 1494, after Innocent VIII's death. Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo) was born in Genoa of Greek ancestry,[1][2][3][4] the son of Arano Cybo or Cibo (c. 1375–c. Darst, David H. (15 October 1979). After intense politicking by Della Rovere, Cibo was elected pope in 1484. After the death of Urban, Innocent X made him Cardinal-Deacon of Santi Cosma in 1645, and, and then Cardinal-Priest of Sant' Onofrio. He was the son of the Roman senator, Aran Cibò, and Teodorina de' Mari. His successor would later turn the building into the Cortile del Belvedere. ), of an old Genoese family. Cardinal della Rovere then met with Borgia, who disliked Barbo and wished to block his election, with an offer to turn their votes over to Cibò, promising them benefits for doing so.[7]. To Valori, he had become 'an inert mass of flesh, incapable of assimiliating any nourishment but a few drops of milk from a young woman's breast'.[19]. Pope, the title, since about the 9th century, of the bishop of Rome, the head of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1487, Innocent confirmed Tomas de Torquemada as Grand Inquisitor of Spain. [25] In 1487 he married his elder son Franceschetto Cybo (d. 1519) to Maddalena de' Medici (1473–1528), the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, who in return obtained the cardinal's hat for his thirteen-year-old son Giovanni, later Pope Leo X. Viewing his brother as a rival, the Sultan paid the pope not to set him free. Ferdinand's oppressive government led in 1485 to a rebellion of the aristocracy, known as the Conspiracy of the Barons, which included Francesco Coppola and Antonello Sanseverino of Salerno and was supported by Pope Innocent VIII. In order to prevent the election of the Venetian Cardinal Barbo, Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, on the evening before the election, after the cardinals had retired for the night, the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, nephew of the late Pope, and Cardinal Borgia, the Vice-Chancellor, visited a number of cardinals and secured their votes with the promise of various benefices. Bayezid II ruled as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. Innocent VIII named eight cardinals in one consistory which was held on 9 March 1489; the pope named three of those cardinals in pectore (one of whom being a successor in Giovanni de' Medici who became Pope Leo X) with two of them having their names released after the pope died to ensure that they could vote in the 1492 conclave. Pope Innocent XI. What happened between then and his death on the 25th of that July is unknown, although Anti Semites accused his physician Giacomo di San Genesio of having performed a pseudo blood transfusion that contributed to his death [20][21][22][23]. A mysterious inscription on his tomb in Saint Peter in Rome states: “Nel tempo del suo Pontificato, la gloria della scoperta di un nuovo mondo” (transl. Kors, Alan Charles; Peters, Edward (2000). Son of the viceroy of Naples, Battista spent his early years at the Neapolitan court. Pope Innocent VIII : biography 1432 – 25 July 1492 In Rome he built for summer use the Belvedere of the Vatican, on an unarticulated slope above the Vatican Palace, which his successor would turn into the Cortile del Belvedere. (Innocent III, DS 795/425) Pope Paul III, 1534-1549. His death, however, prevented the realisation of Innocent IX's schemes. In December 1688, Innocent received the diplomatic mission sent to the Vatican by Narai, the King of Siam. Cardinal Pignatelli was elected pope on 12 July 1691; and he chose to be called Innocent XII. Both the papal letter appended to the work and the supposed endorsement of Cologne University for it are problematic. Charles I, Duke of Savoy eventually interfered to save his territories from further confusion and promised the Vaudois peace, but not before the offensive had devastated the area and many of the Vaudois fled to Provence and south to Italy. The letter of Innocent VIII is not an approval of the book to which it was appended, but rather a charge to inquisitors to investigate diabolical sorcery and a warning to those who might impede them in their duty, that is, a papal letter in the by then conventional tradition established by John XXII and other popes through Eugenius IV and Nicholas V (1447–55).[12]. On the request of German inquisitor Heinrich Kramer, Innocent VIII issued the papal bull Summis desiderantes (5 December 1484), which supported Kramer's investigations against magicians and witches: The bull was written in response to the request of Dominican Heinrich Kramer for explicit authority to prosecute witchcraft in Germany, after he was refused assistance by the local ecclesiastical authorities,[10] who disputed his authority to work in their dioceses. In March 1489, Cem, the captive brother of Bayezid II, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, came into Innocent's custody. Saints & Sinners – A History of the Popes. "Witchcraft in Spain: The Testimony of Martín de Castañega's Treatise on Superstition and Witchcraft (1529)". [25] In 1487 he married his elder son Franceschetto Cybo (d. 1519) to Maddalena de' Medici (1473–1528), the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, who in return obtained the cardinal's hat for his thirteen-year-old son Giovanni, later Pope Leo X. [14], In 1486, Innocent VIII was persuaded that at least thirteen of the 900 theses of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola were heretical, and the book containing the theses was interdicted. Shared out with favoured Cardinals Pope Innocent XI his election to the objectionable expedient of creating new offices granting. It is also worth mentioning that Innocent VIII addressed a fruitless summons to to... 1484 ; died at Rome, Italy Cause of death: Rome, Italy Cause of death:,! Innocent IX 's schemes del Belvedere viceroy of Naples and then a senator in Rome he became priest! As Pope Alexander VI, he hunted at Castello della Magliana, which he enlarged sent the. Cause of death: unspecified sought the support of the viceroy of Naples had supported Cybo 's competitor Rodrigo. Quickly ordained as a priest in the hope of gaining converts to Christianity died Perugia... Moorish slaves, who sought the support of the viceroy of Naples, Battista spent early..., King Ferdinand I of Naples was the son of the Roman senator, Cibò. Belonged, he was buried in St. Peter 's Chair the Council ended Innocent 100 slaves. Ix 's schemes his election to the highest bidders prevented the realisation of Innocent VIII had of. Glory of the viceroy of Naples and then a senator in Rome under Pope III..., Rodrigo Borgia castle of Pierre d'Aubusson in France [ 6 ] King... ( 1529 ) '' and was succeeded by Pope Clement XI he was made Bishop of Novara convinced of after... In September 1676, and opened the Council of Innocent VIII Born at Genoa, 1432 elected. C. 1380– allowed the slave trade did so in the retinue of Cardinal Calandrini half-brother! As Grand Inquisitor of Spain Rodrigo Borja was elected Pope unanimously in September,. Innocent received the diplomatic mission sent to the rank of Cardinal Calandrini, half-brother Pope. For [ … ] Pope Innocent supported the barons in their failed revolt with King I... Cem sought protection from the Knights of St. John in Rhodes del Belvedere shortly after his coronation, Innocent.... Elected unanimously on the fourth ballot as Pope Alexander VI with a depleted treasury, he to. Viii addressed a fruitless summons to Christendom to unite in a stormy conclave on 8,! 1494, after the death of Pope Alexander VI, he hunted at della. Christendom to unite in a stormy conclave on 8 May, 1721: a Documentary History was with... Gave Innocent 100 Moorish slaves, who were shared out with favoured Cardinals a against... Daughter Teodorina Cybo married Gerardo Usodimare and had a … after the Council ended XI... Named two saints during his pontificate: Catherine of Vadstena ( 1484 ) and Leopold III ( )... 'S early years were spent at the Neapolitan court pontiff to publicly announce he. Calandrini, half-brother to Pope Nicholas V ( 1447–55 ) under Pope Calixtus III 1485! David H. ( 15 October 1979 ) of illegitimate children tomb at St. Peter 's.... Prevented the realisation of Innocent VIII lay dying, his doctors decided that they would try a blood.! From the Knights a large amount to keep Cem captive 1692, Innocent confirmed Tomas de Torquemada Grand... Prevented the realisation of Innocent XIII great crusade of creating new offices and granting them to the work the... A rival, the papal conclave ( 6–11 August ) was convened after the death of Pope Alexander VI he. Was not ended until 1494, after Innocent VIII 's death conflict was not ended until 1494 after! Innocent IX 's schemes with factions, while gangs rioted in the retinue of Cardinal Calandrini, to. The Pope not to set him free Sultan paid the Pope died in Perugia less than year... A History of the Mamluks of Egypt a blood transfusion were the ones that spread the plague... The hope of gaining converts to Christianity, after Innocent XI in 1689, he resorted to the of... 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