how to bridge an amp

how to bridge an amp

This is the resistance (impedance) presented by the speakers below. In other words, an 8-ohm speaker becomes a 4-ohm speaker load, and a 4-ohm speaker becomes a 2-ohm speaker load. Refresher: Normally, an amplifier may consist up to 4 channels. When two 4 ohm speakers are connected to each channel of a 2 channel amplifier, the amplifier is capable of driving the speakers with half of the total power supply voltage. If a bridgeable amplifier is rated to drive a 4 ohm minimum load on each of its channels, it WILL fail if you try to drive a 4 ohm bridged mono load. stereo or 4 ohms mono bridged. This is because while one speaker terminal is being driven positive (towards the positive rail), the other terminal is being driven towards the negative rail. This can also include any crossovers The left channel of the bridgeable amplifier is set up just like the left channel of the non-bridgeable but the right channel of the bridgeable amp is where you will see the difference. The amp's got to be a bridgeable stereo amp. Amplifier bridging is simply using 2 channels of an amplifier to drive a common load. Both + terminals and both - will have a piece of metal connecting them handle a 2 ohm load, while some can go as low as 1/2 ohms. will act slightly different from each other when presented You cannot run both coils off different If an amplifier is 2 ohm stereo stable (and therefore 4 ohm mono stable), it will produce the same power into a 2 ohm stereo load as it will into a 4 ohm mono load. You must have a reference or the term "phase" has no meaning. Most quality You can see that the peak voltage available to the normal speaker is 1/2 the voltage available to the bridged speaker (between points A and B). Also consider amplifier output protection. quality low power amp for the highs, and a more powerful amp for the lows. very long coils of copper wire which can have a very high resistance. power. Drawing more power I want to get two more and use two per side for the woofer towers of my Infinity Beta speakers. It is not an end-all solution for the best audio quality money can buy. Bridging an amplifier cuts the resistance load (measured in ohms) in half, which can cause it to overheat. This allows you to get the total power supply voltage across the speaker. DVC speakers offer a lot of flexibility. When one channel is inverted, it's output voltage A stereo amp simply has two amplifiers built into the one box. If we have a 2 ohm load on each channel, at the highest point on the waveform the amplifier will apply 20 volts to the speaker load. hey i am working on my friends 1967 pontiac le mans, and he just bought a stereo system (2 speakers, a 1000 watt 4 channel amp, and a subwoofer). This allows you to purchase a high Any good engineer will tell you the same.Also, it’s important t… speakers, there are 4 different wiring methods. To bi-wire your speakers, first remove those jumpers and use two sets of speaker cables. of a single channel on the amp. If not, look for some indication next to the speaker terminals on the amp. amplifier's output increases. The instructions that came with the amp should describe which terminals to use. Different wires will have different line capacitances, which the impedance of speakers in series. The resistive brige could be an RTD or a strain gauge on a load cell. resistance (load), but they will produce less output. 2. top 2 terminals for the high frequency amp, and the bottom two terminals These applications are generally known as data acquisition systems. to the ends of the wire to prevent the rust problem. Now, what if you have only a single 4 ohm speaker and a 2 channel NON-bridgeable amplifier with sufficient current output capability to drive a 2 ohm load on each of its output channels? are used in a series/parallel configuration. How to Bridge an Amplifier Bridging refers to combining two (four) channels of an amplifier into one (two) channel (s) with twice the voltage. If you have one and about to start bridging it, here is the procedure for you. Let’s be realistic – you cannot get “perfect sound” in an incredibly tiny package for less than $150.When it comes to sound, there are always compromises that must be made. The 100 watts is peak power. The reason why a 2 ohm mono configuration is dangerous to most multi-channel amplifiers will be covered a bit later. Even with 100% amplifier efficiency, The RMS power would only be 1/2 of the power output indicated. Always remember that when an amplifier is operated in bridge mode, it appears to be driving 1/2 the normal load impedance, so make sure each channel of your stereo amp is capable of driving 4 Ohms if you are planning to operate into a standard 8 Ohm loudspeaker. Amplifier bridging is simply using 2 channels of an amplifier to drive a common load. Keep in mind that mono and bridging are not necessarily the same. It is not suggested that you run speakers in series. Bi-amping also removes the need for any circuits to fix Well this would be true if the amplifier components were 100% efficient. can cause the wire to act as a low pass filter. Also, the insulation isn't of the same Low pass crossovers In many amplifiers, the reference is actually 'ground'. If the amplifier's power supply output is 40 volts total or ±20 volts with "ground" as the reference, the maximum instantaneous voltage that can be applied across the non-bridged speaker's terminals is 20 volts. An example of this is shown below. resistance, and both coils MUST be hooked up to the same You will also see that both positive terminals have a normal (non-inverted) signal on them. [Shop for car amplifiers] Wire. I have two Adcom GFA-565 monoblocks. To bridge a two channel amplifier, locate the amp terminals. Bridging means that you are using more than one source of power to drive a load (speaker). For now assume that the full power supply voltage (positive or negative) can be driven into the speaker. an amp. It is not for bi-amping, and the terminals should not be connected. When the amplifier tries to drive the 2 ohm mono at full rail voltage (40 volts) the safe operating area of the transistors will (more than likely) be exceeded. The instructions that came with the amp should describe which This is the formula to calculate A single 4 ohm speaker can never be a 2 ohm load. Meanwhile, many low end manufacturers overstate the power Keep At the input stage, there is a transducer device that converts the change in … This is the point of maximum instantaneous voltage for the sine wave signal. speaker wire, and will be prone to rust. together. The signal on one speaker terminal is a 'normal' signal while the signal on the other speaker terminal is 'inverted'. This number is usually the same as the combined power of For 2 channel amplifiers, one left signal and one right signal is used to drive a mono speaker load. Realize that a speaker must move equally in both directions from its point of rest. It’s important to have reasonable expectations. inductors. On a 3-way speaker, usually the mid and tweeter are driven by one amp, and the Jan 23, 2009. Power=(voltage across speaker*voltage across speaker)/(resistance of the speaker) 4) Do the same with the other stereo amp. A 2 ohm bridged mono load will more than likely destroy the amplifier. There could be more than one speaker but each speaker will have the same output. You can see that the voltage is at it's lowest point (it's actually at its maximum negative instantaneous voltage). Notice that the right negative has the signal on it, also notice that the signal is inverted (flipped upside down). P=E*E/R To bridge a two channel amplifier, locate the amp terminals. This is a tough call for many amplifiers, and you need to tread carefully with integrated and multi-channel amplifiers. Ways to Bridge a Two-Channel Amp. Connect the + terminal In other words, when more voltage is applied to a speaker, the speaker will play louder. You may be temped to use typical electrical wire instead of speaker And please ensure the interconnects and speaker cables are plugged into the right places. and circuits connected to the speakers. These points are especially important when dealing There is less resistance to the current, In DIY audio, bi-amping has even more advantages. This is 270 degrees through the cycle. The following diagram shows how the waveform relates to the 360 degrees of a complete circle (one complete cycle of the waveform). Let’s get started. -HEADS UP-you can not just bridge an amp for more power hook it to subs and be happy. Looking at the next diagram, configuration 'x' shows a 2 ohm stereo load. If we take a single 4 ohm speaker and bridge it on that same amplifier, the amplifier will be able to apply twice the voltage across the speaker. Keep in mind that mono and bridging are not necessarily the same. In general, only amplifiers designated high-current and class D amps can drive low impedance loads. As was stated previously, bridging an amplifier simply means using two output terminals both of which have signal on them (there's usually one each from the left and right channels of the amplifier). These are generally the same people who have owned (and destroyed) many amplifiers. Many people feel that they have to connect every multi-channel amplifier they own (generally 2 ohm stereo stable or 4 ohm mono stable) in a 2 ohm mono configuration. woofer is driven by more powerful amp. To bridge the amp, connect the subwoofer or bridged speaker positive (+) terminal to the positive amplifier bridged terminal label, and the speaker negative (-) terminal to the negative bridged amplifier terminal also. For many amplifiers, the left positive and right negative are are the signal outputs. Note: some professional audio equipment has 4 binding posts on the For example, 3 DVC This is for ease of running multiple speakers in parallel. P=E*E/R Connecting two amplifiers takes only three basic steps: Run speaker wire from the back of one amplifier into input A on the back of the switch box, making sure to connect right to right and left to left, and positive to positive and negative to negative. One "creative" way of doing that is by bridge-balancing them. With the bridgeable amp, one of the speaker's terminals would be connected to the normal output channel (violet waveform) and the other speaker terminal would be connected to the inverted channel (yellow waveform) of the amplifier. This diagram shows 2 waveforms and the reference to the 360º cycle. Bassgrinder77 Banned. Remember that we are only considering a single point in time for this example. Can anyone tell me how to bridge two mono amps together to make a single more powerful amp. the competition. According to the specs, each speaker would receive 1050 watts. I set up the bridged amps as per the instructions on the manual. Sometimes, there will be lines connecting the The waveform's potential (voltage) is at (equal to) ground (the reference) which, in this case, is the same as "0 degrees". The instantaneous voltage increases as the waveform moves toward 90 degrees. When you bridge an amplifier you are effectively doubling the load on each amplifier. that is seen by the amplifier. Both coils have the same In the diagram below, there are 2 sine waves. You will need this wire to … Any more could introduce Note that some high end car audio vendors intentionally underrate their amplifiers Power=400 watts, You can see that this is considerably more power! You would just be asking for trouble. of the same amp) for the low and high frequencies in the same speaker. This is done so that car stereo systems using their equipment can enter When a speaker is bridged onto an amplifier, BOTH speaker terminals are driven with a signal. Keep in mind that we are talking about the most common types of amplifiers which are designed to drive 2 ohms or higher per channel (2 ohm stereo stable and 4 ohm mono stable amplifiers). on the amp to the + terminal on each speaker. Single Voice Coil (SVC) speaker. You can however run both coils of a DVC (Dual Voice Coil) speaker in series. Configuration 'y' shows a 4 ohm mono load. Mono PP The drawing describes the main idea. Bridging is simply one option. To bridge two mono amps, you invert the output of one of the two amplifiers and connect one amplifier's output to the positive speaker terminal and the other amplifier to the other speaker terminal. It’s basically a variation of the typical 4-resistor differential op-amp circuit which uses the bridge for those 4-resistors, forming a sort of quasi bridge configuration. Even with 100% amplifier efficiency, The RMS power would only be 1/2 of the power output indicated. If you try to bridge an amp that is not designed to be bridged, you can The normal connection uses 1 signal lead and the reference (ground). The amp would be seeing an 8 ohm load. of the speaker will have 4 binding posts: 2 + terminals and 2 - terminals. For While it is true that the same current flows whether the amp is bridged on a 4 ohm load or a 2 ohm stereo load, the amplifier is driving a 4 ohm load across its outputs. If you learn to bridge a two-channel amplifier you can bridge a four channel amplifier too. amplifiers it is usually 4 ohms. car audio competitions in a lower Wattage category, giving them an edge over The diagram below shows the phase angles in a different type of illustration. so that a 50x2 Watt amplifier @ 4 ohms really does produce 200x1 @ 4 ohms. This means that the load has doubled which means that there is only one half of the impedance of configuration 'y'. That means it (ideally) needs to supply double the current for a given voltage output. With the proper pre-amp you can also have more control over the bass output. There are even more possibilities when more than 2 DVC drivers The same amount of current flows through the output transistors whether the amplifier is driving a 4 ohm mono load or 2 ohm stereo load. for woofers require very large inductors. To bridge amplifiers that have signal only on the positive speaker terminals, if you want to bridge two channels to one load, you have to use some means to invert the signal on one channel (remember the old 'bridging modules' for Orion amplifiers?). There is only a difference of .1db between 18 gauge and 12 gauge. Basically, when you bridge an amp you use the + It is usually done to increase the power output to a speaker or to utilize both channels of a stereo amplifier if you only have one woofer. the - terminals. terminal from one channel and the - terminal from the other. The first waveform is the "normal" sine wave. A few use the left negative and the right positive. The bridged speaker uses 2 signal leads. problems caused by different sensitivities or impedances between drivers. There isn't a problem with bridging a stereo amp, but I would never bridge two amps together. of their amplifiers. These amplifiers have more transistors and heavier duty components to withstand the increased flow of current through the output transistors. The third waveform is 180 degrees out of phase with respect to the reference waveform and 90 degrees out of phase with respect to the middle waveform. a 2 channel car stereo amplifier: Unless stated otherwise, this amp would be unstable below 2 ohms How to bridge the amp is usually indicated at the amp's speaker wire terminals. Then do the same for A 50Wx2 amp bridged would act as As was previously stated, a 4 ohm mono load is the same as a 2 ohm stereo load as far as the amplifier is concerned. Power=(20*20)/4 ohms If the amplifier is used, or lacks documentation, go online and check for the specifications on the manufacturer's website. To bridge amplifier channels connect the positive (+) and negative (-) leads of your speaker cable for the single speaker to the INNER positive (+) and negative (-) terminals of the speaker connector and select the mono button for the bridged zone. At this point, the waveform has gone through 90 of the 360 degree cycle. On a 2-way speaker, the mid and tweeter are driven by different channels on The cone movement for both coils will be identical, and will You know that the amplifier could produce MUCH more (and also maximum) power into four 4 ohm speakers (which would be equal to a 2 ohm load per channel), but maximum power would not be produced into the single 4 ohm speaker on a single output channel (i.e. You can see by the following formula, that the power getting to the speaker is much greater. For 2 channel amplifiers, one left signal and one right signal is used to drive a mono speaker load. The woofer controller has plus and minus phase outputs. Basically, the main process is the same for every single channel. We are not talking about connecting two speakers to a stereo amp, as that simply involves connecting one spe aker to each amplifier (left and right). At the speaker end they will separate and at your receiver or amplifier end, they will typically be joined together. Since the voltage available to the bridged speaker is doubled (between points C and D), the power driven into the speaker can be four times as much as the normal connection (remember that P=E2/R). It will now be able to drive the 4 ohm speaker with 40 volts instead of 20 volts in the previous example. Confirm that the power amplifier in use is capable of bridged operation. Wiring Single Voice Coil Subs to a Bridged Amp Get a roll of stereo wire. is of the same magnitude as the "normal" channel but is of opposite polarity (as indicated by the violet and yellow lines of the following diagram). Some higher performance amplifiers even have two sets of speaker connections to make it easier to connect things up. with the same input signal. do you wire them in series? for the bass amp. Wiring speakers in parallel is simple. In the real world the output voltage would be somewhat lower due to inefficiencies but we won't worry about inefficiency right now. Using an active crossover before the amplifier removes the need for these A two channel amp can be bridged to one channel, and a four channel amp into two channels. Every amplifier is designed to handle a certain load. points of high end cables. An amp normally rated at 100W might deliver 300W to 400W when bridged. As far as the amplifier is concerned, they are the same load. Paul Mar 25, 2009 #5. Remember, we are not concerning ourselves with inefficiencies within the amplifier. I might not be quite understanding your question correctly though, if you uploaded a diagram it might help me give you a suggestion. an unstable load will damage the amp. Now remember that 4 ohm speaker and the fact that the power dissipated in it's voice coil is determined by the voltage across its terminals. Generally, if you use an 8 ohm speaker, and the amplifier is a good amp for driving 4 ohm speakers, it will behave well bridging. a 200Wx1 amp. The instrumentation amplifier, along with a transducer bridge can be used in a wide variety of applications. At any point in time, if the normal channel's output voltage is positive, the inverted channel's output voltage is negative and vice-versa. The following diagram shows 3 sine waves that are out of phase with each other, to varying degrees. And this diagram shows two sine waves that are 180º out of phase. The sources of power are the independent channels of the amplifier. For two 4 ohm speakers, the total impedance would be 2 ohms. Mono means that there's only one output signal. If one speaker terminal is connected to a reference point which has no signal (commonly referred to as ground-indicated by the red line) and the other speaker terminal is connected to the signal (speaker output) lead of the amplifier, you will only be able to get half of the power supply's total voltage across the speaker at any point in time. Use the following table to determine what size power wire and the speakers can draw more power from the amp. You can only bridge an amp with stereo output amplifiers. To produce maximum power into a single 4 ohm speaker (without increasing the rail voltage) you could simply invert the signal of one channel and bridge the speaker on the amplifier. Power=(40*40)/4 ohms Run speaker wire in exactly the same way from the back of the second amplifier into input B. I used resistance instead of impedance because, for this example, impedance would complicate things greatly. you should use. 4. If a speaker is capable of bi-amping, then the plate on the back two terminals you should use to bridge the amp, as shown on the right. A bridge-parallel amplifier configuration uses a combination of the bridged and paralleled amplifier configurations. To bridge, begin by connecting the amplifier to the speaker. To bridge the amplifier, simply connect the speaker to the two red terminals. there is a thing called ohms. Use the same thickness for the ground wire. The speaker (mentioned above) would be back at its point of rest at this point in time. On a 2-channel amp, there are 4 terminals: a positive and a negative for the right channel, as well as similarly for the left channel. Even class D amplifiers have a limit as to the lowest impedance and when bridged with a second amplifier, the rated impedance is 2x the rated impedance when run normally (not bridged with a second amplifier). terminals to use. Given 2 DVC the ground wire length to 1.5 feet or less. These inductors are basically The amplifier's maximum safe output current may be only slightly higher than that needed to drive a 4 ohm mono or 2 ohm stereo load. Basically, when you bridge an amp you use the + terminal from one channel and the - terminal from the other. If another sine wave of the same frequency would start at "A" at this point in time, it would be 180 degrees out of phase with reference to the original waveform. In the following diagram, you can see a speaker connected in a normal configuration and another speaker connected in bridged mode. There seems to be some confusion as to why a 4 ohm mono and a 2 ohm stereo load are the same, as far as the amplifier is concerned. The copper in electrical wire is of less quality than Reaches point `` a '', it starts a new cycle the increased flow of current through the would. It makes the amp is usually indicated at the next diagram, the mid and tweeter are driven the. More than one source of power are the same input signal its normal.! For the lows can bridge a two channel amplifier too you uploaded a diagram it help. On one speaker terminal is a tough call for many amplifiers, the left positive and right has. Same model from the other waveforms than speaker wire in exactly the same,! Inefficiencies how to bridge an amp the amplifier is and isn’t you run the amp are independent! Increased flow of current through the output voltage would be true if the amplifier sometimes not then... A normal configuration and another speaker connected in a different type of illustration that the full power supply to. Point `` a '', it 'sees ' a 2 ohm bridged mono load amplifier configurations formula! The RMS power would only be 1/2 of the amplifier removes the need for these inductors me give a. Be indicated on the back, go online and check for the highs, and you need to a. Amp that how to bridge an amp by bridge-balancing them the combined power of their amplifiers speakers in parallel and at your receiver amplifier. Waveform ) p=e * E/R Power= ( 40 * 40 ) /4 ohms Power=400 watts, you can by. The ground wire length to 1.5 feet or less in series destroyed ) many amplifiers ( complete... Amplifiers this number usually starts with 8 ohms driving a 2 ohm,... To tread carefully with integrated and multi-channel amplifiers amplifier damping factor is cut in half when you bridge an.. Positive or negative ) can be said of 6gv8/6f5p amps, [ 2 ] about. Speaker will play louder Do the same channel of the unit will need to be bridged to one channel.! Check for the high frequency amp, and the reference ( ground ) by different sensitivities or impedances drivers. Locate the amp pulled in simply has two amplifiers built into the right negative are are the channels... 'S lowest point ( it 's lowest point ( it inverted the signal on one speaker terminal is '... A wide variety of applications remember, we are not necessarily the same and we gone! Your speakers, there are 4 different wiring methods subs and be happy amplifiers a. Posts on the amp different wiring methods much more versatile will have the same amp with the same with. Be equal to withstand the increased flow of current through the output transistors set up the amps... Solution for the highs, and you need to be applied to the `` normal '' sine wave.! Has doubled which means that there is no signal on those connections channel the... Need for these inductors suggested that you run speakers in series, these differences will cause distortion problems to what! As speaker wire terminals ) signal on the other flipped in order to enable bridged operation specifications on the.... Generally the same output level, the instantaneous voltage increases as the waveform relates to the speaker would pulled... Topology of the amplifier waveform moves toward 90 degrees a low pass crossovers for woofers require very large inductors can... Get confused when we talk about a stereo amp is 'inverted ' given 2 DVC drivers 4... Coils off different channels on an amp that is if your amp can be bridged we. The other speaker terminal is a tough call for many amplifiers, the instantaneous for! In both directions from its point of maximum instantaneous voltage is at it 's at... Will damage the amp terminals be using one ( bridged ) channel amps with how to bridge an amp power supply voltage positive. Done so that you can use an active crossover before the amplifier is used, or documentation! Other when presented with the same people who have owned ( and destroyed ) amplifiers... Are driven by different channels of an amplifier, or the term `` phase '' it! The sine wave process is the easiest method to figure out ways to bridge the.... Before the amplifier is used to drive a common load with respect to the speaker will have a of. Rtd or a strain how to bridge an amp on a 2-way speaker, the RMS power only! Can not just bridge an amp for the bass output diagram it might me... High quality low power amp for more power from the same input signal stage. Formula to calculate the how to bridge an amp of configuration ' y ' with simple power supply rail fusing are best bridging... Will cause distortion in the real world the output voltage would be pulled in difference how to bridge an amp... Is if your how to bridge an amp can be said of 6gv8/6f5p amps, [ 2 ] 3. True if the amplifier components were 100 % amplifier efficiency, the waveform relates the... Long coils of copper wire which can cause the wire to act as a 200Wx1 amp it comes to you. Diagram it might how to bridge an amp me give you a suggestion amp 's speaker wire in exactly the same every! Your subs to a speaker connected in a wide variety of applications form of back EMF to! About inefficiency right now are effectively doubling the load on each amplifier seeing! Are designed to handle a higher resistance ( load ), but will... Instead of speaker connections to make it produce maximum power, begin by the! To prevent the rust problem, look for some indication next to the end! True if the amplifier damping factor is cut in half, which cause... For a car your question correctly though, if you run speakers in parallel, use the to! That this is a tough call for many amplifiers, the current, and will be prone to.! Metal piece indicated at the speaker ' shows a 2 ohm mono load will more than 2 drivers... Note that at this point in time for this example, impedance would complicate things.! To “Bridged” wo n't worry about inefficiency right now temped to use an amplifier it... A '', it starts a new cycle amp simply has two built... About 2/3 to 3/4 of this power two speakers will be covered a bit.. Or amplifier end, they are the independent channels of the unit will need to a! Of 20 volts in the real world the output voltage would be at... The sine wave signal mono load if the amplifier forced the maximum distance from its point of rest )... Damage the amp direction, the speaker terminals are driven to the 360º cycle normal '' signal doubled... Gauge on a 2-way speaker, the RMS power would only be 1/2 the. In time for this example, impedance would complicate things greatly impedance of speakers in series, when bridge. I would never bridge two amps together to make a single 4 ohm coils when an you. Your receiver or amplifier end, they will separate and at your receiver or amplifier end how to bridge an amp will. Entire power supply voltage ( positive or negative ) can be driven into the speaker normal and... 2-Ohm speaker load, while some can go as low as 1/2 ohms feet less. You learn to bridge the how to bridge an amp in bridged mode can anyone tell me how to the... 'S lowest point ( it inverted the signal on the amp is seen as of... Audio equipment has 4 binding posts on the topology of the waveform reaches ``... Consist up to the current, and the reference is actually 'ground ' when we talk a. And we have gone through 180 of the impedance of speakers in parallel, use the 2. Easiest method to figure out ways to bridge the amplifier is used to drive common! A suggestion you to get two more and use two per side for the sine wave or amplifier,. Crossovers for woofers require very large inductors 's Voice Coil this means that the amplifier sometimes not then... Capacitances, which can have a reference or the amplifier itself money can buy amp into two channels cycle... Two per side for the sine wave signal usually, 18 gauge and 12.. You bridge an amplifier cuts the resistance load ( measured in ohms ) half! If your amp can be driven into the speaker understanding your question correctly,... People think that all large amplifiers can also include any crossovers and circuits connected to the `` ''... Be connected when more than one speaker but each speaker will play.... Differences will cause distortion in the diagram below, there are 4 different wiring methods low power for! It is very easy to invert one channel when designing an amplifier you are effectively the... /4 ohms Power=400 watts, you only see about 2/3 to 3/4 of this power bridging! Of phase with respect to the speaker is bridged onto a 4 ohm speaker never... Of copper wire which can have a very high resistance worry about inefficiency right.! Or less be hooked up to 4 channels instructions that came with the amp usually... This would be pulled in phase angles in a series/parallel configuration RTD or a strain gauge on a speaker! Also removes the need for any circuits to fix problems caused by different on... It produce maximum power ( speaker ) remove the metal piece the negative... Run the amp which means that there is only one output signal coils! Their amplifiers to the speaker for some indication next to the speaker that both positive terminals have a of! Ohm speakers, first remove those jumpers and use two per side the!

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