Bartolomé de las Casas is the most polemical figure in the great event that was the discovery and conquest of America. Bartolomé de las Casas es símbolo de denuncia y protección. Las Casas's point of view can be described as being heavily against some of the Spanish methods of colonization, which, as he described them, inflicted great losses on the indigenous occupants of the islands.  Las Casas himself was also not satisfied with the laws, as they were not drastic enough and the encomienda system was going to function for many years still under the gradual abolition plan. En 1506 regresó a España y en 1507 fue ordenado sacerdote del clero secular en Roma. Bartolomé de Las Casas was born in 1484 in Sevilla, Spain.  His account was largely responsible for the adoption of the New Laws of 1542, which abolished native slavery for the first time in European colonial history and led to the Valladolid debate. When his preaching met with resistance, he realized that he would have to go to Spain to fight there against the enslavement and abuse of the native people. The book was deemed unsound for publication by the theologians of Salamanca and Alcalá for containing unsound doctrine, but the pro-encomendero faction seized on Sepúlveda as their intellectual champion. This letter, which reinvoked the old conflict over the requirements for the sacrament of baptism between the two orders, was intended to bring Las Casas in disfavour. (Vol II, p. 257). In 1513, as a chaplain, Las Casas participated in Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar's and Pánfilo de Narváez' conquest of Cuba. Here, Las Casas argued, Indians could be better governed, better taught and indoctrinated in the Christian faith, and would be easier to protect from abuse than if they were in scattered settlements. His extensive writings, the most famous being A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies and Historia de Las Indias, chronicle the first decades of colonization of the West Indies. He also argues that Las Casas failed to realize that by seeking to replace indigenous spirituality with Christianity, he was undertaking a religious colonialism that was more intrusive than the physical one. Bartolomé de las Casas (US: /lɑːs ˈkɑːsəs/ lahs KAH-səs; Spanish: [baɾtoloˈme ðe las ˈkasas] (listen); 11 November 1484 – 18 July 1566) was a 16th-century Spanish landowner, friar, priest, and bishop, famed as a historian and social reformer. To secure the grant, Las Casas had to go through a long court fight against Bishop Fonseca and his supporters Gonzalo de Oviedo and Bishop Quevedo of Tierra Firme. Las Casas maintained that they were fully human, and that forcefully subjugating them was unjustifiable. While waiting, Las Casas produced a report that he presented to the Bishop of Burgos, Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca, and secretary Lope Conchillos, who were functionaries in complete charge of the royal policies regarding the Indies; both were encomenderos. While he was gone the native Caribs attacked the settlement of Cumaná, burned it to the ground and killed four of Las Casas's men. Arriving in Spain he was met by a barrage of accusations, many of them based on his Confesionario and its 12 rules, which many of his opponents found to be in essence a denial of the legitimacy of Spanish rule of its colonies, and hence a form of treason. En el gobierno de Diego Colón, España amplió su dominio a Puerto Rico, Cuba y Jamaica, siendo De las Casas soldado y encomendero. The second part of the Memorial described suggestions for the social and political organization of Indian communities relative to colonial ones. María Ramos Rosado : Catedrática Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto Río Piedras (Porto Rico) In : Bartolomé de Las Casas : Face à l'esclavage des Noir-e-s en Amériques/Caraïbes.L'aberration du Onzième Remède (1516) [en ligne]. As the influence of the Spanish Empire was displaced by that of other European powers, Las Casas's accounts were utilized as political tools to justify incursions into Spanish colonies.  He suggested fortifying the northern coast of Venezuela, establishing ten royal forts to protect the Indians and starting up a system of trade in gold and pearls. The first edition in translation was published in Dutch in 1578, during the religious persecution of Dutch Protestants by the Spanish crown, followed by editions in French (1578), English (1583), and German (1599) – all countries where religious wars were raging. The judges then deliberated on the arguments presented for several months before coming to a verdict. [b] This shows that Las Casas's first concern was not to end slavery as an institution, but to end the physical abuse and suffering of the Indians. This book, written a decade earlier and sent to the attention of then-prince Philip II of Spain, contained accounts of the abuses committed by some Spaniards against Native Americans during the early stages of colonization. , The Dominican friars Antonio de Montesinos and Pedro de Córdoba had reported extensive violence already in the first decade of the colonization of the Americas, and throughout the conquest of the Americas, there were reports of abuse of the natives by friars and priests and ordinary citizens, and many massacres of indigenous people were reported in full by those who perpetrated them. , As a part of Las Casas's defense by offense, he had to argue against Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda. de las Casas, Fray Bartolomé Obras completas. Su padre era Pedro de las Casas, un comerciante de familia emigrada desde Francia para establecerse y fundar la ciudad de … Las Casas had a considerable part in selecting them and writing the instructions under which their new government would be instated, largely based on Las Casas's memorial.  To make matters worse, his detractors used the event as evidence of the need to pacify the Indians using military means.  The New Laws made it illegal to use Indians as carriers, except where no other transport was available, it prohibited all taking of Indians as slaves, and it instated a gradual abolition of the encomienda system, with each encomienda reverting to the Crown at the death of its holders. The colonists, led by Diego Columbus, dispatched a complaint against the Dominicans to the King, and the Dominicans were recalled from Hispaniola.. From Bartolomé de las Casas Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies (1542) ... [Puerto Rico] and Jamaica are two of the largest, most productive and attractive islands; both are now deserted and ... How does Las Casas describe Native Americans and how does he contrast them with By the early 1980s, salsa singer Cano Estremera, a resident, began bringing his musician friends over to practice at Las Casas. 115-187; F. Morales Padrón (coord. Las Casas was devastated by the tragic result of his peasant migration scheme, which he felt had been thwarted by his enemies.  His father, Pedro de las Casas, a merchant, descended from one of the families that had migrated from France to found the Christian Seville; his family also spelled the name Casaus. It is under the management of the Puerto Rico Housing Authority (Administración de Vivienda Pública in Spanish) and is under the federal housing program of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. He described in detail social arrangements, distribution of work, how provisions would be divided and even how table manners were to be introduced. Las Casas hielt sich ab 1502 zunächst als Kolonist in den neuen spanischen Besitzungen in Amerika auf und wurde ab 1514 einer der schärfsten und beachtetsten Kritiker der Conquista sowie Streiter für die Situation der Indios in den … For other uses, see, Spanish Dominican friar, historian, and social reformer, Las Casas and Emperor Charles V: The peasant colonization scheme, "If one sacrifices from what has been wrongfully obtained, the offering is blemished; the gifts of the lawless are not acceptable. Sepúlveda was a doctor of theology and law who, in his book Democrates Alter, sive de justis causis apud Indos (Another Democrates /or A New Democrates, or on the Just Causes of War against the Indians) had argued that some native peoples were incapable of ruling themselves and should be pacified forcefully. This method was championed by prominent Franciscans such as Toribio de Benavente, known as "Motolinia", and Las Casas made many enemies among the Franciscans for arguing that conversions made without adequate understanding were invalid.  Las Casas left Guatemala for Mexico, where he stayed for more than a year before setting out for Spain in 1540.  He witnessed many atrocities committed by Spaniards against the native Ciboney and Guanahatabey peoples. A revisionist view of Bartolomé de las Casas as the ‘author’ of the introduction of African slaves to the Indies/Americas in the early 16th century. " Las Casas himself argued against the Dominicans in favour of the justice of the encomienda.  In 1510, he was ordained a priest, the first one to be ordained in the Americas. The school's student:teacher ratio of 16:1 has increased from 13:1 over five school years.  As a result, in 1515 he gave up his Indian slaves and encomienda, and advocated, before King Charles I of Spain, on behalf of rights for the natives. 2.  Other historians, such as John Fiske writing in 1900, denied that Las Casas's suggestions affected the development of the slave trade. By the late 1980s, however, illegal drugs began making their way into the complex, although the Puerto Rican drug wars of the era were mainly concentrated into other nearby complexes, mainly Residencial Nemesio M. Canales and Residencial Luis Llorens Torres. Sauvage spoke highly of Las Casas to the king, who appointed Las Casas and Sauvage to write a new plan for reforming the governmental system of the Indies.  He returned to Hispaniola in January 1522, and heard the news of the massacre. Another important part of the plan was to introduce a new kind of sustainable colonization, and Las Casas advocated supporting the migration of Spanish peasants to the Indies where they would introduce small-scale farming and agriculture, a kind of colonization that didn't rely on resource depletion and Indian labor. In the Catholic Church, the Dominicans introduced his cause for canonization in 1976. Christianity and Freedom: Historical Perspectives. The accounts written by his enemies Lopez de Gómara and Oviedo were widely read and published in Europe. The second was a change in the labor policy so that instead of a colonist owning the labor of specific Indians, he would have a right to man-hours, to be carried out by no specific persons. Riportiamo in seguito le opere di Las Casas nell'ordine cronologico di composizione e pubblicazione. Travelling back to Spain to recruit more missionaries, he continued lobbying for the abolition of the encomienda, gaining an important victory by the passage of the New Laws in 1542.  He is also often cited as a predecessor of the liberation theology movement. Residencial Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas, more commonly known as Residencial Las Casas, Caserio Las Casas or Las Casas, is a public housing complex located in San Juan, Puerto Rico consisting of 417 housing units. The tragic outcome of Las Casas's great mainland adventure made him turn his life in a new direction. , Also in 1536, before venturing into Tuzulutlan, Las Casas went to Oaxaca, Mexico, to participate in a series of discussions and debates among the bishops of the Dominican and Franciscan orders. In 1531, he wrote a letter to Garcia Manrique, Count of Osorno, protesting again the mistreatment of the Indians and advocating a return to his original reform plan of 1516. All warfare was illegal and unjust and only through the papal mandate of peacefully bringing Christianity to heathen peoples could "Just Titles" be acquired. "Las Casas" redirects here. Lo recoge en la Historia de Indias , (OC.  Las Casas also appeared as a witness in the case of the Inquisition against his friend Archbishop Bartolomé Carranza de Miranda, who had been falsely accused of heresy. Early in 1522 Las Casas left the settlement to complain to the authorities. , Arriving in Puerto Rico, in January 1521, he received the terrible news that the Dominican convent at Chiribichi had been sacked by Indians, and that the Spaniards of the islands had launched a punitive expedition, led by Gonzalo de Ocampo, into the very heart of the territory that Las Casas wanted to colonize peacefully. Dominican priest, chronicler, theologian, Bishop of Chiapas in Mexico and champion of native Americans, considered the Apostle of the Indies, was born in Seville in 1474 and died in Madrid in 1566.  In keeping with the legal and moral doctrine of the time Las Casas believed that slavery could be justified if it was the result of Just War, and at the time he assumed that the enslavement of Africans was justified.  The overwhelming main cause was disease introduced by the Europeans. He was consecrated in the Dominican Church of San Pablo on March 30, 1544. By Daniel Castro. Juan, Puerto Rico, for the training of the selective draft men in Puerto Rico. He oversaw the construction of a monastery in Puerto Plata on the north coast of Hispaniola, subsequently serving as prior of the convent. All in all, modern historians tend to disregard the numerical figures given by Las Casas, but they maintain that his general picture of a violent and abusive conquest represented reality. Las Casas appointed a vicar for his diocese and set out for Europe in December 1546, arriving in Lisbon in April 1547 and in Spain on November 1547. All the Indian slaves of the New World should be brought to live in these towns and become tribute paying subjects to the king. Las Casas defended himself by writing two treatises on the "Just Title" – arguing that the only legality with which the Spaniards could claim titles over realms in the New World was through peaceful proselytizing. Luis M. Díaz Soler† : Decano Académico, Centro de Estudios Avanzados de Puerto Rico y El Caribe (Porto Rico) In : Bartolomé de Las Casas : Face à l'esclavage des Noir-e-s en Amériques/Caraïbes.L'aberration du Onzième Remède (1516) [en ligne]. Vea las fotografías de los anuncios, detalles y compare propiedades. Gunst, Laurie. Subsequent biographers and authors have generally accepted and reflected this revision. He arrived in Hispaniola as a layman then became a Dominican friar and priest. Las Casas himself was granted the official title of Protector of the Indians, and given a yearly salary of one hundred pesos.  After a year he had made himself so unpopular among the Spaniards of the area that he had to leave. , He has also come to be seen as an early advocate for a concept of universal human rights. , Opposition to Las Casas reached its climax in historiography with Spanish right-wing, nationalist historians in the late 19th and early 20th centuries constructing a pro-Spanish White Legend, arguing that the Spanish Empire was benevolent and just and denying any adverse consequences of Spanish colonialism. ... Al terminar sus estudios, viajó a las Indias partiendo desde el Puerto de Sanlúcar de Barrameda, en Cádiz, en 1502. Las ideas de Las Casas contienen los principios básicos de la moderna misionología reafirmada por el Concilio Vaticano II. , The Apologetic Summary History of the People of These Indies (Spanish: Apologética historia summaria de las gentes destas Indias) was first written as the 68th chapter of the General History of the Indies, but Las Casas changed it into a volume of its own, recognizing that the material was not historical. Asimismo, opto por una biografía más plural de Bartolomé de las Casas, que nos delinea mejor sus grandes realizaciones (esa reconducción de la conquista militar y ese trato más humano del indígena) y sus aspectos más controvertidos (en particular, el rigorismo moral de que hizo gala frente a los conquistadores, en sus reglas de confesores)». Fray Bartolomé de las Casas murió el 17 de julio de 1566 en el mencionado convento de Madrid, siendo sepultado en la capilla mayor. Sometimes indigenous nobility even related their cases to him in Spain, for example, the Nahua noble Francisco Tenamaztle from Nochistlán. He is commemorated by the Church of England in the Calendar of Saints on July 20, The Episcopal Church (USA) on July 18, and at the Evangelical Lutheran Church on July 17. Estremera would go on to become a legendary singer and international super-star who, in 2003, made a CD commemorating his twenty years in the music industry. Er wurde als Berater des Gouverneurs tätig und bekam nach … Cada maestro ayudará que los estudiantes sean los aprendices activos. He made up his mind to give up his slaves and encomienda, and started to preach that other colonists should do the same. The history is apologetic because it is written as a defense of the cultural level of the Indians, arguing throughout that indigenous peoples of the Americas were just as civilized as the Roman, Greek and Egyptian civilizations—and more civilized than some European civilizations. During this time the Hieronimytes had time to form a more pragmatic view of the situation than the one advocated by Las Casas; their position was precarious as every encomendero on the Islands was fiercely against any attempts to curtail their use of native labour.  In 1538 Las Casas was recalled from his mission by Bishop Marroquín who wanted him to go to Mexico and then on to Spain to seek more Dominicans to assist in the mission. , The New Laws were finally repealed on October 20, 1545, and riots broke out against Las Casas, with shots being fired against him by angry colonists. He described the atrocities committed by the colonizers against the indigenous peoples..  The verdict was inconclusive, and both debaters claimed that they had won. , But apart from the clerical business, Las Casas had also traveled to Spain for his own purpose: to continue the struggle against the colonists' mistreatment of the Indians. Ardent advocate of the laws and He is said to have preached, "Tell me by what right of justice do you hold these Indians in such a cruel and horrible servitude? 258 Bartolome De Las Casas, San Juan, PR, 00915 is a single family home for sale listed on the market for 52 days.  In this early work, Las Casas advocated importing black slaves from Africa to relieve the suffering Indians, a stance he later retracted, becoming an advocate for the Africans in the colonies as well. However, the reforms were so unpopular back in the New World that riots broke out and threats were made against Las Casas's life. In 1550, he participated in the Valladolid debate, in which Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda argued that the Indians were less than human, and required Spanish masters to become civilized. Why do you keep them so oppressed and exhausted, without giving them enough to eat or curing them of the sicknesses they incur from the excessive labor you give them, and they die, or rather you kill them, in order to extract and acquire gold every day. , The small town of Lascassas, Tennessee, in the United States has also been named after him. Las Casas resolved to meet instead with the young king Charles I. Ximenez died on November 8, and the young King arrived in Valladolid on November 25, 1517. 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