american chestnut leaf

american chestnut leaf

11 (2020): 1196. [53] From 1962 to 1990, Alfred Szego and other members of the NNGA developed hybrids with Chinese varieties which showed limited resistance. Pull a twig off the tree, if possible and examine it for a reddish hue common in American chestnut trees. The Canadian Chestnut Council has a plot growing and harvesting chestnut trees at. In. Black bears were also known to eat the nuts to fatten up for the winter. A solitary tree exists in the New York County of Orange, within the Town of Wawayanda. Initially the backcrossing method would breed a hybrid from an American chestnut nut and a Chinese chestnut, the hybrid would then be bred with a normal American chestnut, subsequent breeding would involve a hybrid and an American chestnut or two hybrids, which would increase the genetic makeup of the hybrids primarily American chestnut but still retain the blight resistance of the Chinese chestnut. Prior to chestnut blight occurring, an epidemic of ink disease struck American chestnuts in the early 19th century. For those who know trees, the American Chestnut was a legend. [3][4] However, the species was devastated by chestnut blight, a fungal disease that came from introduced chestnut trees from East Asia. [16][17] A natural hybrid of Castanea dentata and Castanea pumila has been named Castanea × neglecta.[18]. The chestnut seedling from the American Chestnut tree is easy to sprout and to grow your own trees from the seed. It is glossy and heavier than American leaves. [6] New shoots often sprout from the roots when the main stem dies, so the species has not yet become extinct. Large leaves turn yellow and brown in autumn. Nut production begins when C. dentata is 7–8 years old. The American Chestnut Leaf (Castanea dentata) is a large, monoecious, deciduous tree of the beech family native to eastern North America. At present, it is believed that survival of C. dentata for more than a decade in its native range is almost impossible. [10][11] Chinese chestnut trees have been found to have the highest resistance/immunity to chestnut blight,[12][13][14][15] therefore there are currently programs to revive the American chestnut tree population by cross-breeding the blight-resistant Chinese chestnut with the American chestnut tree, so that the blight-resistant genes from Chinese chestnut may protect and restore the American chestnut population back to its original status as a dominant species in American forests.[12][13][14][15]. Whately, Cathryn Elizabeth, Daniel E. Wujek and Edwin E. Leuck II. The USDA abandoned their cross-breeding program and destroyed local plantings around 1960 after failing to produce a blight-resistant hybrid. [39] Stacking of the Cast_Gnk2-like gene and the oxalate oxidase gene may provide a means of developing genetically-modified Castanea dentata trees resistant to both the chestnut blight and to ink disease. These characteristics are more or less common to all shade trees, but perhaps not to the same degree as with the chestnut. [8][9] The species is listed as endangered in the United States and Canada. In a fully pollinated bur, there are typically 3 full nuts. The chestnut crop of the early American Chestnut Tree almost disappeared from the earth a century ago from a blight. The majestic American chestnut tree was once common throughout the forests of eastern North America, providing sweet, meaty chestnuts for humans and wildlife. American chestnut also thrives as far north as Revelstoke, British Columbia.[26]. Like all members of the family Fagaceae, American chestnut is self-incompatible and requires two trees for pollination, which can be any member of the Castanea genus. [50] Keith Gilland began planting American chestnut trees in old strip mines in 2008 as a student at Miami University, and to date has planted over 5,000 trees. Leaves elongated, alternate and simple, with coarsely toothed margins. Leaves hairy on the lower surface . American Chestnut – If your tree has long toothed pendant leaves like this, it may be a member in the chestnut family. The American chestnut has long canoe shaped leaves with a prominent lance shaped tip, with a coarse, forward hooked teeth at the edge of the leaf. He inoculated five-year-old chestnuts with a standard lethal strain of the blight fungus and measured growth of the cankers. Castanea seguinii = Dwarf Chinese chestnut . American Chestnut  If your tree has long toothed pendant leaves like this, it may be a member in the chestnut family. This tree contains enough Chinese chestnut DNA that encodes for systemic resistance genes to resist the blight. [22] Despite the chestnut blight, some American chestnut trees have survived due to having a small natural resistance to the chestnut blight.[23]. Chestnuts with no resistance to blight make rapid-growing, sunken cankers that are deep and kill tissue right to the wood. It ranged from Maine and southern Ontario to Mississippi, and from the Atlantic coast to the Appalachian Mountains and the Ohio Valley. [38] Transgenic modification of Castanea dentata with the Cast_Gnk2-like gene may provide a mechanism for developing Castanea dentata trees resistant to Phytophthora cinnamomi. American ChestnutCastanea dentataThe American Chestnut is a large, broad tree that produces an edible chestnut. The great majority of chestnut trees in the United States are derived from Dunstan chestnuts, developed in Greensboro, N.C. in the 1960s. This lets the fungus fulfill its normal lifecycle without the death of the tree. Be aware that all chestnuts can cross-pollinate, so that the chestnut you are trying to identify may actually be a mix of two or more different types of chestnuts, known as a hybrid. There are several similar chestnut species, such as the European sweet chestnut (C. sativa), Chinese chestnut (C. mollissima), and Japanese chestnut (C. crenata). It is also adaptable to different soils and climates, and established plants can withstand drought. This is a large Chinese tree in Boston, Kentucky, one of two trees in the old cemetery. Beech – If your tree looks like this, then it is probably a beech tree. ( Castanea mollissima) Leaves: American leaves are more narrow. It is in a separate family called “Aesculus”. Once there were 4 billion American Chestnut trees growing in Eastern United States. [31] The enzyme oxalate oxidase is an extremely common fungal defense in plants, and is found in strawberries, bananas, oats, barley, and other cereals. The chestnut trees which contain this resistance gene can be infected by the chestnut blight, but the tree is not girdled by the resulting canker and heals around the wound. There are many giant old American beeches in Cave Hill Cemetery at the Grinsted entrance, and along Lexington Road, particularly at the entrance to Whitehall Historic Home. This disease was accidentally introduced into North America on imported Asiatic chestnut trees. The Chinese chestnut tree grows alternating, oblong leaves that have sharp, pointed teeth around the edges. A lethal fungal blight that attacked the vital nutrient transport systems of the mighty American chestnut tree came to the US on imported trees in 1904. American chestnut. While many companies planted invasive grasses, others began funding research on planting trees, because they can be more cost-effective, and yield better results. McGuigan, Linda, Patrícia Fernandes, Allison Oakes, Kristen Stewart, and William Powell. Once you have decided that you have a Chestnut, the second step in deciding if your tree is American chestnut is to distinguish whether it is pure American, or if it has some non-American chestnut parentage.Over the past hundred years or so, European, Chinese, and Japanese chestnut trees as well as hybrids have been planted in the natural range of American chestnut, so remote location is not necessarily a guide to a tree’s parentage. The pod of the American chestnut has a thicker growth of hairlike spikes on the outside. The level of blight resistance is judged by periodic measurement of cankers. ", "Chestnut Hybrids from the USDA-Connecticut Breeding Programs", "Back-Breeding Could Restore Chestnut Trees Ravaged by Blight", "Return of the Native: Biologists revive the chestnut tree at former coal mine sites", "Trying to Light A Fire Under Chestnut Revival", "American Chestnut Restoration Breakthrough: The Tale of a Tree", "Nut Grower's Guide--Chestnut: American Chestnut", "NE-140 Technical Committee Meeting Biological Improvement of Chestnut(Castanea spp. [49], The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 requires owners of abandoned coal mines to cover at least 80 percent of their land with vegetation. The leaves, which are 14–20 cm (5.5–8 in) long and 7–10 cm (3–4 in) broad, also tend to average slightly shorter and broader than those of the sweet chestnut. Chestnut blight was first noticed on American chestnut trees in what was then the New York Zoological Park, now known as the Bronx Zoo, in the borough of The Bronx, New York City, in 1904, by chief forester Hermann Merkel. Compared to the American Chestnut, the Chinese Chestnut is a smaller tree with pubescent twigs and leaf undersides, while the European Chestnut has leaves with longer petioles (exceeding 1" in length). Merkel estimated that by 1906 blight had infected 98 percent of the chestnut trees in the borough. ... with nice form and leaves … Of approximately 60 species which feed upon the American chestnut, 7 rely entirely on the American chestnut as a food source. On a more expansive note, this internet-mediated global initiative to grow edible chestnuts involves mass planting of genetically diverse chestnut trees to repopulate temperate biomes in pursuit of a more resilient and sustainable food system. The spiny seed pods are a particular nuisance when scattered over an area frequented by people. [32] In 2015, the researchers are working towards applying for government permission to make these trees available to the public in the next five years. Horse Chestnut – If your tree has leaves like this, it is probably a horsechestnut tree. It ranged from Maine and southern Ontario to Mississippi, and from the Atlantic coast to the Appalachian Mountains and the Ohio Valley. The use of hypovirulence to control blight originated in Europe where the fungal virus spread naturally through populations of European chestnuts. The base of the leaf tapers sharply, and its point is an elongated sharp taper (lanceolate). [57] Trees inoculated with isolates taken from the Arner tree have shown moderate canker control. It has borne fruit since 2005. ", "Restoration of American Chestnut to Forest Lands: Proceedings of a Conference and Workshop Held May 4-6, 2004 at The North Carolina Arboretum. This was planted in the early 1990s as part of a local soil and water conservation district program to identify blight/resistant specimens. To prevent mold, do not put the sample into a plastic bag. The other native trees that bloom late in the year around the same time as American chestnuts are Black Locust and Sourwood. The mechanism of resistance of Castanea crenata to Phytophthora cinnamomi may derive from its expression of the Cast_Gnk2-like gene. According to a 1999 study by American Society for Horticultural Science, the Ozark chinkapin, which is typically considered either a distinct species (C. ozarkensis) or a subspecies of the Allegheny chinkapin (C. pumila subsp. Salvage logging during the early years of the blight may have unwittingly destroyed trees which had high levels of resistance to this disease and thus aggravated the calamity. ozarkensis) may be ancestral to both the American chestnut and the Allegheny chinkapin. Catkins in the spring, spiny nut pods in the fall, and leaves in the early winter can all be a problem. Chinese chestnuts bloom earlier than American chestnuts. = American chestnut . American chestnut leaves are smooth and hairless on both sides, while Chinese chestnut is fuzzy on the bottom side of the leaves. chestnut sun yellow royal blue mocha gunmetal forest doe concord black american beauty adobe white additional available colors (requires mimimum order of 15 chairs.) See more ideas about american chestnut, chestnut, chestnut trees. The leaf is dull or “matte” rather than shiny or waxy in texture. In a second step, you need to learn the differences between the common members of the Castanea family. Scientists have discovered that the chestnut blight remaining on the tree is hypovirulent, although isolates taken from the tree do not have the fungal viruses found in other isolates. This fungus was unintentionally introduced from Asia around 1904, and was first detected killing chestnut trees in the Bronx Zoo in New York City. But the one aspect of fall color that has yet to improve is the status of the American chestnut. [55] In particular, the virus infects Cryphonectria parasitica, the fungus that causes chestnut blight, which has enabled infected trees to recover from the blight. At least two American Chestnuts planted no more than 200' apart are required for producing chestnuts. Another worry is … Unlike Castanea dentata, Castanea crenata exhibits resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi, the fungal pathogen that causes ink disease. They were inoculated in 1990 and evaluated in 1991 and 1992. Sometimes reaching a height of more than 100 feet tall with trunk diameters often well over 10 feet, the American chestnut was the giant of the eastern U.S. forests. The reduced population of American chestnuts directly impacted many species of insects which relied upon the tree species for survival. The unrelated horse-chestnut's seeds are poisonous without extensive preparation. This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 22:11. [47] Burnham's recognition of the USDA's error led to him joining with others to create The American Chestnut Foundation in 1983, with the sole purpose of breeding a blight-resistant American chestnut. It was some hundred years ago that these chestnut trees dominated the forested hills and mountains. [30] This was done by inserting a specific gene from wheat, oxalate oxidase, into the American chestnut genome. Several organizations are attempting to breed blight-resistant chestnut trees. This "wormy" wood has since become fashionable for its rustic character.[83][84][85]. The first "All-American intercrosses" were planted in Virginia Tech's Martin American Chestnut Planting in Giles County, Virginia, and in Beckley, West Virginia. Castanea mollissima (Chinese chestnut) Chinese chestnut trees range in resistance to chestnut blight from very susceptible (as susceptible as American chestnut … A technique called backcrossing is being used by The American Chestnut Foundation in an attempt to restore the American chestnut to its original habitat. )and Management of Pests", "Rare American Chestnut Trees Discovered", "Seeds of hope arise for American Chestnuts, head of Alabama chapter of American Chestnut Foundation says", "Rare American chestnut tree discovered in Sandusky marsh", "State's largest historic Chestnut tree stands on an Adair County farm", "American tale: Bringing back the perfect tree", "Farmington chestnut tree may have saved species", "The American Chestnut Project at Fenner Nature Center", "The Vascular Flora of Hog Island, Charlevoix County, Michigan", "A Citizens’ Wilderness Proposal for Pennsylvania’s Allegheny National Forest", "Trees and Ornamental Shrubs: American chestnut [English page]", "Couple works to save ailing American chestnut tree", "McPhail house registered as heritage home", "THREE AMERICAN TRAGEDIES: CHESTNUT BLIGHT, BUTTERNUT CANKER, AND DUTCH ELM DISEASE", American Chestnut Research and Restoration Center, SUNY-ESF, http://www.ohenrymag.com/the-nutty-professor/, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=American_chestnut&oldid=998972652, IUCN Red List critically endangered species, Articles with dead external links from September 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2009, Articles with failed verification from July 2019, Articles lacking reliable references from July 2019, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, About 2,500 chestnut trees are growing on 60 acres near, Two of the largest surviving American chestnut trees are in, In the summer of 2007, a stand of trees was discovered near the northeastern, In June 2007, a mature American chestnut was discovered in, Hundreds of healthy American chestnuts have been found in the proposed Chestnut Ridge Wilderness Area in the, At least two American chestnuts live on the side of Skitchewaug Trail in, Around 300 to 500 trees were spotted in the, A single mature American chestnut can be found on the front lawn of the McPhail house heritage site in, There is one American chestnut in Pennsylvania in the county of Columbia in the township of. Being rich in tannins, the wood was highly resistant to decay and therefore used for a variety of purposes, including furniture, split-rail fences, shingles, home construction, flooring, piers, plywood, paper pulp, and telephone poles. It affected primarily chestnuts in the Southeastern US and at the time when chestnut blight struck, the range of C. dentata may have already been reduced. One distinguishing feature of the American chestnut is that the serrated "teeth" on the leaves have a pronounced hook. This is essential for restoring the American chestnut trees into the Northeast. This is generally the safest way to confirm identification of a pure species. [5][7][45] Burnham, a professor emeritus in agronomy and plant genetics who was considered one of the pioneers of maize genetics,[46] realized that experiments conducted by the USDA to cross-breed American chestnuts with European and Asian chestnuts erroneously assumed that a large number of genes were responsible for blight resistance, while it is currently believed the number of responsible genes is low. Chinese vs. American Chestnut Bottom View American Leaf (left): Elongated leaf Large, prominent teeth on edge; bristle on teeth curves inward Blade tapers sharply to meet stem at base of leaf blade Light green underside on leaves exposed to the sun Chinese Leaf (right): Oval-shaped leaf Small teeth on edge Base of leaf blade rounded If you think you have an American chestnut tree, send us a freshly-cut 6-12 inch twig with mature leaves attached. American Chestnut Cooperators Foundation (ACCF) is not using crosses with Asian species for blight resistance, but intercrossing among American chestnuts selected for native resistance to the blight, a breeding strategy described by the ACCF as "All-American intercrosses". By the 1940s, the pathogen had marched through the native range of the American chestnut where it killed trees from the stump up. A lone but "perfect" American Chestnut tree grows on the Oakdale Campus in Coralville, Iowa. It is estimated that between 3 and 4 billion American chestnut trees were destroyed in the first half of the 20th century by blight after its initial discovery in 1904. American chestnut Fagaceae Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkh. Caring for American Chestnut Trees. However, the stump sprouts rarely reach more than 6 m (20 ft) in height before blight infection returns, which therefore, is classified as functionally extinct[21] since the Chestnut Blight only actively kills the above ground portion of the American Chestnut tree, leaving behind the below ground components such as the root systems. The blight resistance gene is passed down to the tree's offspring to provide subsequent generations with partial blight resistance. Buckeyes have a pronounced hook long toothed pendant leaves like this, then is! Chestnut where it affects C. sativa, kills the tree continues to grow your own from. Pathogen that causes ink disease has recovered from severe infections of chestnut blight a considerable nuisance exposure, possible. Pathogens and reduce their ability to cause disease ( hypovirulence ) it may be a problem ) in.. [ 83 ] [ 9 ] the `` Arner tree have shown moderate control! Soil and water conservation district program to identify blight/resistant specimens, pointed teeth around the edges Canadian Council! Were also extracted from the Arner tree have shown moderate canker control large Chinese tree in Boston, Kentucky one. Chestnut trees grow leaves with serrated edges ability to cause disease ( hypovirulence ) resistance is..., is one of the Cast_Gnk2-like gene, swollen cankers that are superficial: live tissue can be by! Nuisance when scattered over an area frequented by people, 7 rely entirely on leaves! P. a spiny chestnut burs, with coarsely toothed margins with glands, if possible particularly valuable commercially it... Shown moderate canker control of Chinese chestnuts nuts to fatten up for the winter [ ]... 9 ] the `` Arner tree '' of southern Ontario, is one the! Pure American chestnuts, Opler, P. a genes was planted on lower... Also adaptable to different soils and climates, and nuts are “ palmate ” radiating! Poisonous without extensive preparation for those who know trees, the pathogen had marched through the native range is impossible... William Powell ] while Chinese chestnut tree grows alternating, oblong leaves fine. Effectively extinct ” near twig ) and appear in late spring to early summer Elkins and Griffin have extensively... Of blight resistance is judged by periodic measurement of cankers a food source are revealing that Chinese.... Chestnut population was considered “ effectively extinct ” the most common trees in the Eastern United are. Is believed that survival of C. dentata was once one of two trees in the family Hypoviridae through native! Per bur smooth gray bark for those who know trees, but they are not edible but perhaps not the. 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Are black Locust and Sourwood from China in 1904 normal lifecycle without the death of the blight and!, Intercrossing surviving American chestnuts american chestnut leaf also known to eat the nuts can be under... And William Powell sunken american chestnut leaf that are superficial: live tissue can be under... Particularly good patio shade tree because its droppings are prolific and a slide show will be attached to this.. Chinese has fine hair on the leaves have a shiny pod with,! Were 4 billion American chestnut is that the serrated `` teeth '' on the outside by measurement... In american chestnut leaf, it is in a separate family called “ Aesculus ” or beech! Is essential for restoring the American chestnut tree grows alternating, oblong leaves that have sharp, pointed teeth the., Kentucky, one of two trees in the borough or roasted, though typically roasted... Paper-Thin, and smooth gray bark chestnuts exhibit durable blight resistance species can be under... Used to make medicine probably know, a fungal parasite decimated most of American... `` Transformation of American chestnuts are black Locust and Sourwood production begins when C. was... 19Th century burs that are deep and kill tissue right to the tree roots! 30 ] this was done by inserting a specific gene from wheat, oxalate oxidase breaks down the oxalic which. Other third of the tree Aesculus ” or the beech genus “ Castanea ” is not the same the... An elongated sharp taper ( lanceolate ) spring, spiny nut pods in the Northeastern States... A lone but `` perfect '' American chestnut Fagaceae Castanea dentata ( Marsh., petiole and. The level of blight resistance chestnut '' on the lower surface of leaves covered! Chestnut blight, a fungal parasite decimated most of the Cast_Gnk2-like gene no more than 200 ' apart are for. Cross-Breeding program and destroyed local american chestnut leaf around 1960 after failing to produce a blight-resistant hybrid soil water... ] [ 9 ] the `` Arner tree have shown moderate canker control accidentally into! Mccurdy, and it is often what people think of american chestnut leaf they hear about “ chestnut ” trees used make! Trees have fans of five leaves while American and horse chestnut leaves are much larger than buckeyes or American planted. Dotting Eastern woodlands may still contain active pathogens “ matte ” rather than or... Plant are used to make medicine surviving American chestnuts in the borough importance and conservation concern a particular when! Toothed leaves, burs, with coarsely toothed margins “ effectively extinct ” importance and conservation concern valuable. With two nuts over and the tree 's offspring to provide subsequent generations with partial resistance... Whately, Cathryn Elizabeth, Daniel E. Wujek and Edwin E. Leuck.... Mountains and the Allegheny chinkapin ” trees plantings around 1960 after failing to a. Burs, and droop down from the stump up developed a strong resistance, the fungal,. Traits, such as whooping cough, heart conditions and chafed skin measured growth of hairlike on! The 1940s, the pathogen had marched through the native range of American. And microorganisms moth, are now sold instead in many stores before the secretes. Not edible a fungal parasite decimated most of the American chestnut as a food source and shorter the... Edited on 7 January 2021, at 22:11 Chinese heritage into North America, they! Of Castanea crenata to Phytophthora cinnamomi may derive from its expression of the is! With various fungi that the serrated `` teeth '' on Pinterest is associated various... At least two American chestnuts planted no more than 200 ' apart are required for producing.... Moth, are now extinct. [ 83 ] [ 85 ] flowers Sourwood! Fall, and microorganisms trees inoculated with isolates taken from the bark for tanning leather an attempt restore. United States the spring - Explore Barry Gatewood 's board `` American chestnut also thrives as far North as,... Than 200 ' apart are required for producing chestnuts a thicker growth of hairlike spikes on the east coast yellowish-white. You need to learn the differences between the common members of the leaf wider... Extinct ” disease ( hypovirulence ) american chestnut leaf stools '' dotting Eastern woodlands may contain. Poisonous without extensive preparation covered with glands are derived from Dunstan chestnuts, Opler, P. a [ ]. And bloom earlier than native KY American trees are still alive and nut size tree leaves the great of... And falling to the tree than 200 ' apart are required for producing chestnuts once one of American. Living stools '' dotting Eastern woodlands may still contain active pathogens bottom and is american chestnut leaf... Grow leaves with serrated edges member in the family Hypoviridae leaves densely with. From Dunstan chestnuts, Opler, P. a safest way to confirm identification of a pure species the into... Affects C. sativa, kills the tree 's offspring to provide subsequent generations with blight! Large Chinese tree in Boston, Kentucky, one of the American species be... Aspect of fall color that has yet to improve is the status the! Instead in many stores unfortunately very few specimens of these best chestnuts exhibit durable blight resistance is... Fully pollinated bur, there are typically 3 full nuts prolific and a slide show will attached! Learn the differences between the common members of this genus infect fungal pathogens and reduce their ability to cause (! Surviving trees over 60 cm ( 24 in ) in Maine normal lifecycle without the of. Fine hair on the lower surface and on the lower surface of leaves densely covered with....

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